Community Tree Recovery: How to Get Involved


Every year, natural disasters strike communities throughout the United States. Over the past three years, FEMA has declared over 256 individual domestic disasters. These disasters not only affect the people and the infrastructure of the affected communities, but also affect the natural environment as well. The loss of trees is a major component to this devastation, and is far more than meets the eye.


Volunteers work together to replant a tree in the Oklahoma Tree Recovery Campaign.

Trees play a vital role in our everyday lives and are often overlooked until they are no longer there. Trees help clean the water we drink, and improve the quality of the air we breathe. They provide natural spaces for our children to play, and food for a multitude of wildlife to eat. For many people, trees invoke memories of childhood climbing or apple picking. Residents of disaster-stricken areas often talk about the void they feel after their trees have been destroyed. These reasons demonstrate how important it is to restore those lost trees after a natural disaster.

If a disaster strikes your state or community, once the initial needs of the people are met there are numerous ways to jump start the process of tree recovery. Many groups and organizations are invested in the health of your urban tree canopy and can provide you guidance on what sort of specific response your community may need. A good first step would be to reach out to one of the following leaders at your local, county or state level:

Local Level

  • City Forester
  • City Manager

County Level

  • County Forester
  • County Judge

State Level

  • State Forester
  • Urban and Community Forestry Coordinator
Girls Celebrating and Planting

A group of girls help replant trees as part of the Kentucky Tree Recovery Campaign.

These leaders will be able to direct you towards future tree plantings efforts as your community continues to recover. You can also research local non-profit tree planting organizations. Local organizations are great advocates for communities and often have connections to a wide network of organizations who may also want to get involved. Alliance for Community Trees—a program of the Arbor Day Foundation—is a great resource to finding potential non-profits in your area; access the list here.

The Community Tree Recovery program is another way to start discussions on tree recovery in your area. The program focuses on getting trees back into the hands of homeowners following natural disasters. We partner with state and local forestry partners to ensure that long-term tree recovery is a part of the overall recovery process for devastated communities.

We currently have 11 Community Tree Recovery campaigns helping restore communities back to their natural state before they were struck by natural disaster. You can donate online to a specific campaign, or to where the need for funding is greatest. Online donations to the Community Tree Recovery program can be completed here.

However you choose to get involved, replanting our urban tree canopy is an extremely important piece of the recovery process following a natural disaster. Beginning the process of replenishing trees will ensure that the next generation enjoys the natural beauty that once was. Don’t wait to get involved. Find out how you can help your community and state recover today.

Inside Diary of Jade Van Kley: Trek Through the Colorado Rockies

Last week a group of Arbor Day Foundation members went on an exclusive trip with Jade Van KleyDonor Relationship Coordinator and Bradley BrandtReforestation Program Manager. The trip included a guided tour of Big Thompson Canyon, outings through Rocky Mountain National Park and a visit to Pike National Forest to witness members replanting efforts firsthand.

Day 1:


The seedlings growing at the Colorado State Forest Service Nursery.

On Wednesday, October 7th, we arrived in Denver International Airport to incredible weather. It seemed the Centennial State was welcoming us with open arms. We began our trip with a tour of the Colorado State Forest Service Nursery with Nursery Manager Josh Stolz, and CSFS Forester Boyd Lebeda at the Colorado State University Foothills campus. They showed us the process for growing seedlings which are used for reforestation and tree recovery after natural disasters.

That afternoon, Boyd traveled with us to visit community activist Mary Myers, who is perhaps one of the most inspiration people I’ve ever met. Mary had gotten trapped in two great floods in her lifetime while living in Big Thompson Canyon, one in 1976 and in 2013. In 2013 Mary and her husband were trapped in their home due to the Big Thompson Flood which devastated the canyon. Their house remained undamaged, but all of the trees in their front yard, as well as the road leading to their house were completely washed away. Mary has taken it upon herself to ensure that the people in her community were able to have some hope after this disaster by advocating on their behalf to receive trees as they begin to rebuild their community. With the help of the Colorado State Forest Service Nursery and the Arbor Day Foundation’s Community Tree Recovery project, this community was provided the trees they needed to begin repairing their devastated canopy.


The Arbor Day Travel group with Big Thompson Canyon community activist, Mary Myers, and Colorado State Forest Service Forester Boyd Lebeda, who assisted with the Community Tree Recovery project.

As a former nurse, Mary is a natural care taker. “Now that I don’t have patients to look after, this canyon is my patient.” This was the second devastating flood Mary has survived, but she has not lost her sense of humor. “I knew when I saw a 500 gallon propane tank floating down the way in front of my house that I would have to be lifted out by helicopter, again. The first time we were lifted out by a Chinook. The second time, we got a Blackhawk. Now, I never thought I’d become a helicopter snob, but if you get the chance, the Blackhawk has a better view.”

Day 2:

On Thursday we spent the entire day in Rocky Mountain National Park with Public Information Officer Kyle Patterson, and Forester Brian Verhulst. Rocky Mountain National Park historian and author Mary Taylor Young also joined us and shared her deep knowledge of the park and its history.


Part of the Arbor Day Travel group with Public Information Officer, Kyle Patterson in Moraine Park.

We traveled 12,000 feet up to the Alpine Tundra. I had never been in this kind of elevation before, so this experience was both literally and figuratively breathtaking. The plants that live in this region must be hardy enough to survive extreme temperatures, and many of the plants we saw had been there for hundreds, even thousands of years. Visitors are asked to not stray from the paths so as not to disturb the flora. The views from this area were nothing short of spectacular.

In the afternoon we visited the alluvial fan in Rocky Mountain National Park, where Mary, Kyle and Brian all shared the stories of two floods – in 1982 and 2013. In 1982, due to a dam failure, the town of Estes Park was flooded by a depth of six feet. Brian and Kyle shared personal stories of the Big Thompson Flood of 2013, which was caused by torrential rainfall. Brian lost his home in the flood, but still considers himself to be fortunate. He shared that by the time he received word to evacuate, he realized that this was not just a precaution, but a necessity. So, he was able to gather all of his important belongings and leave before the flood took his home. This was an extremely eye-opening experience for those of us who have never experienced a flood event.


Rocky Mountain National Park author and historian Mary Taylor Young talks about the floods of 1982 and 2013 at the alluvial fan.

“People don’t realize the power of water. I work here, and I didn’t even realize its power until this flood,” Public Information Officer, Kyle Patterson said.

We ended the day watching the famous elk rut in the park. This was an amazing sight. I was fortunate enough to see these animals up close that morning, but many of our travelers had not yet heard the incredible bugling of the bull elk. It was a spectacular display of animal behavior.

Day 3:


Arbor Day Foundation supporters Joe Banno (left), and Dr. Beatrice Ting (right) with Arbor Day Foundation Reforestation Manager Bradley Brandt (middle), displaying their strength by “holding up” the Balanced Rock formation in the Garden of the Gods.

On Friday we traveled to Boulder to meet with Colorado State University’s Keith Wood and Boulder City Forester Kathleen Alexander. We learned about the impact of the Emerald Ash Borer, and the ways in which the city has gone about controlling this infestation. We were shown the impact of this pest on Ash trees on the University of Colorado campus. They believe that this outbreak was caused by infested firewood that was brought into the town. They are now using predatory wasps among other methods to control this infestation. Their proactivity on this matter was extremely impressive.

We then traveled to Colorado Springs to see the Garden of the Gods. I had heard of this sight many times, but honestly did not know what to expect. The rock formations in this park are truly a sight to behold. We learned about the park at the Garden of the Gods Visitor and Nature Center. I did not realize that this was not a national park, but a city park of Colorado Springs. The passion these people had for their city park was so inspiring. It is clear that it is a community effort to preserve the park’s natural beauty, and they are extremely passionate about it.

Day 4:


United States Forester Ryan Kolling talking to the Arbor Day Travel Group about the replanting efforts in Pike National Forest that are made possible in part by Arbor Day Foundation supporters.

Saturday was perhaps the most exciting day for our members, as they got to see the trees they have provided to Pike National Forest through their support of the Arbor Day Foundation. We spent the day in the forest with United States Forester Sage Finn and his crew. We traveled into the forest to see the devastation of the 2002 Hayman Fire, which burned 138,114 acres of forest and is the most devastating fire in all of Colorado’s history.

I was not prepared for the devastation that we would see. Even thirteen years later, this area still has an eerie appearance at first glance, with so many charred and dead trees still standing on the landscape. But, as we got closer, we saw hope.

Forester Finn taught us about the concept of “legacy planting.” This is where they plant a new tree next to the remains of a dead tree to increase its likelihood of survival. They plant the new trees on the northeast side of a dead tree, so that at 2pm, when the sun is the hottest and coming from the southwest, the new tree will be shaded. They said the Colorado sun is the primary cause for new trees not surviving. As we walked into the forest amongst tall, charred trees, we were able to see the impact that Arbor Day Foundation supporters are truly making. We saw small trees with pink ribbons residing next to the remains of burned trees. These trees are thriving amongst what, at first glance, appears to be a desolate landscape.


In the foreground there are new trees with pink ribbons that have been planted amongst the remains of charred trees. In the middle is a small colony of Aspens. The aspens were able to regrow themselves, as they are able to propagate through their roots rather than relying on a seed source.

Sage shared that their planting crew can plant 90 to 100 acres per day, with 170 trees per acre. It was incredibly inspiring to see the new growth and hope in this region as a result of the support of Arbor Day Foundation supporters, and the hard work of the United States Forest Service. “If we’re using Arbor Day money and government money, I’m going to make sure we’re doing it right,” Sage said, “We are so glad that you’re here, you are helping us do so much more than we could do on our own.”


As we all went our separate ways and headed for home on Sunday morning, we were all leaving with more knowledge and inspiration than ever before. I feel fortunate that I got to see Colorado for the first time with people who are so passionate about inspiring people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. “What made this trip so unique was all the foresters, rangers & knowledgeable locals we interacted with,” said Arbor Day Foundation Legacy Circle member, Mary Rose Fillip. “Everyone was very excited to meet us and share their expertise. This trip enlightened me. Thank you to everyone who had a hand in this experience!”

Restoring Hope to Disaster-Stricken Communities

DSC_0061 (3)How would your community work toward restoring the local ecosystem following a natural disaster? The terrible wildfires in the western part of the United States are the latest example of why this question remains top-of-mind for community leaders. Communities continue to face devastating loss at the hands of wildfires, hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding and many other natural disasters.

The Community Tree Recovery Program was set up to play an important role in the process of helping communities rebuild following natural disasters. We are currently working on recovery projects in twelve different states. One of these projects is in need of immediate assistance because of timeliness and severity.

The news has been filled with reports of the many uncontained wildfires out west. And with good reason, many of these fires are the worst in decades. Washington is experiencing the worst wildfire in state history, the Okanogan Complex Fire. This comes on the heels of the  Carlton Complex Fire – the previous worst wildfire in state historywhich happened just last year. 

As the courageous firefighters battling these blazes and work to contain them, we need to begin the planning process for helping communities recover. Humanitarian needs will be priority one. But once those needs have been met, we will begin the process of distributing trees to organizations and residents in these areas. Help these communities replant trees lost to wildfire.

Allison Fisher, Neptune Township, New Jersey, and Bill Comery, Paramus, New Jersey, Beneficiaries of the New Jersey Community Tree Recovery Campaign

The Arbor Day Foundation’s Community Tree Recovery campaigns have become an important resource to people affected by natural disasters. Since 2006, the Arbor Day Foundation has given nearly 1.6 million trees to people in communities recovering from natural disasters.

The size, scope and scale of Superstorm Sandy that pounded the eastern seaboard in October, 2012 was unprecedented.

Hurricane-force winds, storm-surge flooding, and salt water damage had a lethal effect on trees in many states, especially the “Garden State” of New Jersey, which lost millions of trees.

Allison Fisher

Credit: NJTV

The people of New Jersey love their trees. Allison Fisher from Neptune Township remarked, “You know you’re so used to seeing something and then it’s not there. It’s like a missing puzzle piece.”

To accelerate the urgent replanting needed, and to begin bringing hope and healing to the people and communities in need, the Arbor Day Foundation and New Jersey Division of State Forestry Services launched the New Jersey Community Tree Recovery Campaign. This year, some 100,000 trees were given to residents at 97 events in 18 counties.

Nj Tree Recovery 6Bill Comery, long-time Paramus resident and that city’s former director of parks and forestry, has seen first-hand the hope and healing brought forth by the New Jersey Community Tree Recovery Campaign.  Said Comery, “More and more communities are engaged. We are on the road to recovering our precious tree canopy, one tree at a time.”  Comery personally witnessed the devastation that hit close to home – literally. “I woke up the morning after the storm and was very disheartened to see my prized scarlet oak damaged beyond repair,” he said. Comery’s scarlet oak was documented as the largest in the entire state of New Jersey. Comery continued, “The tree had provided canopy coverage to my entire home. After its loss, I noticed that I had to run the air conditioner a lot more, and completely alter my landscaping from full shade to full sun.”

Comery is replanting, having planted several trees including some of his favorite species of oak and beech. He concluded, “We need trees for all of the benefits that they provide.  It’s very much a quality of life issue. Trees greatly improve the quality of life in a community. And now, more than ever, with the help of the Arbor Day Foundation and its Community Tree Recovery Campaign, we in New Jersey are taking care to plant the right tree in the right place and restoring our vibrant tree canopy.”

2014-03-29 10.08.45To foster diversity, 29 species were distributed as part of the New Jersey Community Tree Recovery Campaign: Oaks and pines. Spruces and firs. Basswood, beach plum, and bay berry. Black gum and black walnut. Bald cypress and sycamore. The list is long, the trees are beautiful, and their impact will last for generations. The plantings, which will continue, are a heroic response to a natural catastrophe—companies, municipalities, and volunteers taking action to bring green abundance back to their communities.

In the future, “super-storms” such as Sandy are likely to be more frequent as climate change continues unabated. It has been said regarding climate change that we need to avoid the unmanageable and manage the unavoidable. The members and supporters of the Arbor Day Foundation share a simple, noble, and invaluable part of the solution: planting trees.

Do you have an Arbor Day Foundation story that you’d like to share?  Please tell us all about it in the comments section below.  We’d love to hear it!

Robert Horton, Bastrop, Texas, Beneficiary of the Lost Pines Forest Community Tree Recovery Campaign

photo 12In 2011, wildfires devastated the Lost Pines Forest of Bastrop, Texas. The Bastrop County Complex fire was the most destructive wildfire in Texas history. Two people were killed by the fire, which destroyed 1,673 homes, 32,000 acres of land, 96% of Bastrop State Park, and inflicted an estimated $325 million of insured property damage.

The Arbor Day Foundation, through the generous support of our members and supporters, is working with our on-the-ground partners to bring back the loblolly pine trees that made the Lost Pines Forest one of the most unique and beautiful places in the world, and to bring hope and healing to the people that call Bastrop home.

Robert Horton, a retired real estate broker, has long embraced the importance of community. When his 10 acre property was ravaged by the fire that caused enormous damage to Bastrop, Texas, Robert was devastated. “While Bastrop is just a little bitty spot on the map to others, for us who live here, it is important to us. It is home.”

Robert HortonRecovery was top-of-mind to Robert and his neighbors in Bastrop, a community closely identified with the local Lost Pines Forest that was badly burned by the fire. The Arbor Day Foundation, working with partners on the ground, help Robert and Bastrop to restore hope and begin to heal by planting trees. 5,000 trees were planted on Robert’s 10 acres. He praised the Arbor Day Foundation and its partners. “They are a resource that is so valuable that you can’t put a number on it.”

What does the Arbor Day Foundation Community Tree Recovery program mean to Robert Horton?  “It means reclaiming my property.  I moved here for the forest, and now the forest is gone.  But everyone who puts one tree back in the ground helps to bring the Lost Pines back.”

Do you have an Arbor Day Foundation story that you’d like to share?  Please tell us all about it in the comments section below.  We’d love to hear it!

Winter’s Icy Arrival Devastates Tree Canopy

With the first series of ice storms pounding parts of Texas and Oklahoma, saying that winter is here would be an understatement. It’s mindboggling to think a few short weeks ago the South was experiencing the peak of its fall foliage. As disheartening as it is, those same trees that shared their vibrant fall colors are the ones most susceptible to the after effects of the ice storm.

Ice Friday morning in Hugo, OK

Steve Houser, president of Dallas tree care company Arborilogical Services, explains, “With the warm weather, some trees were holding their leaves longer, and that made them more vulnerable to ice.”

You see, more leaves means more surface area for ice, which means more weight on branches, causing them to break.  Fallen branches, or whole trees for that matter, pose as a threat to public safety. Fallen trees can block roadways, tear down power lines, and cause other serious damage. The combination of strong winds and freezing rain serves as winter’s favorite recipe for disaster. However, winter’s assault won’t go without some resistance. To restore the loss of trees and help communities replant after natural disasters, check out our Community Tree Recovery program.

The effect of ice on trees is brutal. In fact, ice can increase the weight of branches by 30 times (Dolce, 2013). The snow storm is plowing its way east and icing over every surface along the way. Unfortunately for us, December and January are the most common times of year for ice storms to visit, which means the worst may still come.

Tree damage from an ice storm in Flat Rock, NC

Although we have no control over aggressive weather conditions, there are a few steps you can follow to ensure that your yard trees survive this winter. Read Brianne’s  Your questions about fall planting: answered! to see what you can do for winter tree survival. If this post didn’t reach you in time to prepare for the ice storms spreading across the country, think about donating to our Community Tree Recovery program to help plant trees and restore hope in areas affected by natural disasters.

Interested in learning how trees make it through the winter? Read Michael Snyder’s How do Trees Survive Winter Cold?




The importance of trees to disaster-stricken communities

700_wgiz8u07llhuw3fdmsurbtnjojmecbeb[1]The tornado outbreak that ripped across the Midwest last weekend left thousands of residents with nothing more than shattered homes, trees, rubble — the only souvenir left by the disaster covers the grounds where towns once stood— and, most importantly, hope.

The most recent storm is a reminder that natural disasters will strike anywhere, without an invitation. As a result, it’s vital we’re prepared to protect the areas affected most. The Arbor Day Foundation’s Community Tree Recovery was created out of the great need for trees in the wake of natural disasters, and began by providing tree relief to the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina. Replanting trees after a tragedy helps survivors to look to the future; a reminder to be hopeful. Trees bring beauty, healing, and hope to areas in most need.

tree_tagcloud_1[1]Trees don’t only serve as means of beautification; they play an essential role in environmental sustainability. They help fight climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide and other pollutants from the air. They lower energy costs by providing shade around your home. When planted along streams and wetlands they prevent erosion and clean the water. Trees provide home to surrounding habitat, not to mention the nutritional value their fruits have to offer.  Unfortunately, in the rouse of natural disaster, trees are also the most common casualty. By replanting trees after a tragedy we help to restore a sense of hope to the community and its members.

After the severe tornado damage caused in Joplin, Missouri in the spring of 2011, the Arbor Day Foundation joined forces with the Wildcat Glades Conservation and Audubon Center to distribute 12,000 trees to residents in four Joplin-area locations.

“Trees are part of the long and important history of the people and the land of their state,” said Dan Lambe, Arbor Day Foundation vice president of programs.

As noted earlier, the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster is what lead the Arbor Day Foundation to team up with the National Audubon Society and launch the Community Tree Recovery campaign. The campaign has since planted more than 120,000 new trees to residents impacted by the storm.Tree Campus USA

You can help rebuild communities struck by natural disasters by donating to the Community Tree Recovery campaign. This fund allows us to be prepared to provide trees for distribution in communities like Joplin and New Orleans. Remember, trees bring beauty, healing, and hope to areas in most need.

Urban Forestry Plan is Key to Weathering the Storm

Let’s face it: no one likes to think about natural disasters, with their potential for devastation of our homes, neighborhoods, communities, and livelihoods. We’ve shared on this blog before about some of the communities hit hardest in recent years by natural disasters, and told the inspiring stories of citizens returning hope and healing to the places they call home.

Even still, there’s simply no way around it. Natural disasters are a fact of life.

When a natural disaster strikes a community, trees are invariably involved and many

Photo credit: Urban Forest Strike Team.

Photo credit: Urban Forest Strike Team.

times on the losing end of the event. Using the framework of the Arbor Day Foundation’s Tree City USA program, sound urban forestry management has proven essential to loss prevention and recovery of our treasured trees.

The scientific consensus is that climate change is occurring and that, in many cases, it is making natural disasters worse. Any planning to mitigate disasters should also include planning to reduce human-caused acceleration or magnification of climate change.

According to a survey by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, nearly three-quarters of U.S. cities are now seeing environmental shifts that can be linked to climate change. More than 1,000 city leaders have signed the U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement to strive to meet or exceed Kyoto Protocol targets in their communities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

A healthy canopy of trees plays an important role in this effort. Trees need to be considered a vital part of every city’s infrastructure – right alongside the bridges, roads, sewers, electrical, and telecommunication grids – and appreciated for the natural workhorses that they are. For proof, one need not look further than the great role trees play in taming stormwater runoff during and immediately following natural disasters.

Sound urban forestry management through the framework of the Tree City USA program has been proven to be essential time and again. In fact, green infrastructure is the only part of a city’s infrastructure that actually increases in value and service over time.

Whether for preventative measures or recovery efforts, here are four key ideas your community needs for the best possible outcomes:

  • Communities with an established budget for tree care are in a better position than those that must compete for grants or appropriations. If your community is a recognized TreeCity USA, your community allocates the standard minimum of $2 per capita in a community forestry program.
  • Be prepared with an emergency management plan – and even better if it specifically includes a storm contingency plan. Unfortunately, it’s likely not a matter of IF you’ll need it, but rather WHEN you will.
  • Take time to “get it right” after a disaster. As in most things, it’s far better to move slowly with deliberate, well thought-out decisions and wise judgment than to rush into hasty action. This is particularly important when considering where reconstruction efforts will take place across a community and where trees should be replaced.
  • Lean on the expertise of your local tree board and their extensive list of contacts. These people will be an invaluable resource when it comes time to actually do the work of replanting trees.

For more information on best practices and ways your community can recover from natural disasters, see Tree City USA Bulletin #68.

Donate Now: Plant trees where they’re needed most.


Summer storms keep disaster recovery top of mind

Strong storms, tornadoes, and wildfires have rocked communities all across the U.S. this spring and summer, leaving paths of destruction in their wake.

In the past few weeks alone, thousands of acres have burned in Southern California and New Mexico. Oklahoma and Texas each have seen rampant devastation by multiple tornadoes – some bringing the strongest winds ever recorded. And with the 2013 tropical storm season now officially underway, climatologists are predicting more and stronger storms for the coasts this summer. Read more…

Foundation and Texas partners launch campaign to restore Lost Pines Forest destroyed in Bastrop fire

Earlier this morning, we joined key Texas partners in launching the Lost Pines Forest Recovery Campaign, a multi-year public-private partnership to raise money to plant more than 4 million trees on public and private land.

Dan Lambe, the Foundation’s vice president of programs, attended and spoke at today’s event in Bastrop State Park, the nucleus of the September 2011 fire that destroyed more homes than any other in state history and raged through 95 percent of the park’s 6,600 acres.

The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and Texas A&M Forest Service are serving as on-the-ground partners in the five-year replanting effort. Both were crucial to making today’s launch happen.

The Lost Pines ecosystem includes more than 75,000 acres of loblolly pines scattered across sections of five Texas counties. It is a precious natural resource for Texans and the state’s visitors, and we’re honored to be a part of restoring it.

The Foundation is taking the lead on fundraising for what is expected to be a $4 million effort. So far, we have secured commitments from Mary Kay, Inc., FedEx, Chili’s Grill and Bar, Nokia and Apache Corporation, and we’re looking forward to adding even more corporate sponsors to the list.

We still need you help to restore the Lost Pines forest to pre-disaster condition. You can donate today at

Carter Smith,Texas Parks and Wildlife Department executive director, summed up the need well when he said “no one entity has the resources to do it all alone, but we’re fortunate that people care deeply about natural treasures like the Lost Pines and Bastrop State Park.”

He added: “Bringing back the trees is an essential step to restore the region’s ecological lifeblood. If we each donate a little, together we can do a great deal.”

Learn more about the Lost Pines Forest Recovery Campaign and make a donation today.

UPDATE: Here is the Foundation’s Dan Lambe (far right) watering longleaf loblolly seedling with other speakers, dignitaries and corporate sponsors in Bastrop State Park this morning. Additional photos are available from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.

Left to right: Texas A&M Chancellor John Sharp, Texas State Rep. Tim Kleinschmidt, Carter Smith (Texas Parks and Wildlife), Dan Lambe